Учебник английского - страница 12

Используя таблицу, расскажите по-английски о наиболее важных усо­вершенствованиях в конструкции автомобиля с момента его изобретения. О каких последних достижениях в области конструирования автомобилей вы знаете? Какая информация в тексте наиболее интересна с вашей точки зре­ния и почему?

Саг of Future

Ever since Nicolas Cugnot, a Frenchman, invented the first self-propelled road vehicle in 1770, there has been no shortage of companies willing to make a better automobile. Over years their ef­forts have given users the gasoline engine (дизель), the electric starter, tubeless tires (бескамерная шина), fuel-injected engines and anti-lock brakes (тормоз с антиблокировочным устрой-


ством), these are only a few innovations. What is next? Here are some examples of what the car designers are working at in the world today.

Engineers are experimenting with a state-of-art (новейший) system that enables drivers to see better after dark. This «night vi­sion» system uses infrared sensors that can detect a human figure at night more than 1,600 feet away. That's five times the distance at which conventional headlights are effective. The sensors pick up infrared rays emitted by any object that gives off heat. An im­age-processing system scans the information from the sensors, cre­ating different images for different objects. The images are then displayed on a cathode-ray screen built in a car's instrument panel. It is like black-and-white photograph of an object ahead. And the system is passive, which means no lights are needed to illuminate the object in front of the vehicle. But the biggest problem will be re­ducing costs and the other one is the size of the sensor mechanism which is too big now.

One of the latest applications of sophisticated electronics is the wheel-computerized system that not only monitors air pressure in automobile tires but adjusts it automatically. In addition this sys­tem enables a driver to set tire pressure while seated. The system developed consists of three separate modules. The first is the in­strument panel display which houses the system's main micropro­cessor, programming buttons (кнопка включения программы) and warning signals. The second component is the detector drive module (модуль привода) which is essentially four microchips at­tached, in one unit, to the chassis. Each chip detecting pressure changes that may occur, the transistors within the module signal the third component — a programmable transducer (программи­руемый преобразователь). The transducer attached to each wheel changes the tire pressure accordingly.

However, some automobile experts think this system is too com­plicated and costly. The design has to be simple and of low cost.

Text 7C

^ Прочитайте и перескажите текст.

Talking Instrument Panels

For a few years now some of the most advanced new automo­biles have been equipped with instrument panels that can «speak»


providing instrument readings or safety warnings from special elec­tronic circuits.

In a polite female voice, the device will report on engine oil pressure, parking-brake and headlight operation, seat belt connec­tion, totalling 14 different functions. The driver can even program the Voice Warning System to announce the time or to give a low-fuel warning for any preset gas tank level. The heart of the Voice Warning System is a microprocessor-based electronic speech module made by National Semiconductor Corp. (US). The device requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to in­stall in a car.

Text 7D

^ Прочитайте текст. Используя слова и выражения из текста, опишите свое состояние перед экзаменом.

Testing Times

Exam stress doesn't occur most strongly during the actual exams but in the few weeks just before them. The climax is usually the night before when last minute preparations confirm your worst fears (страх). There are, however, some simple ways of dealing with the problem.

First, one must know that the night before is too late to do any­thing. Much better to go to a dance, for a walk, to the pictures or to play a game rather than increase stress by frantic efforts to plug in gaps (затыкать пробелы) in your knowledge.

The brain is a complex bio-electrical machine which, like a computer, can be overloaded. It does not work continuously. When you study, your brain reaches its maximum efficiency about five minutes you start work, stays at it for about ten minutes and then it is down. Indeed, after thirty minutes your attention wonders (от­влекаться), your memory shuts off, and boredom (скука) sets in.

For this reason, the best way to study is in half-hour sessions with gaps in between of about the same length. It even helps to change subjects and not keep at the same one since it reduces the boredom factor.

Study stress was experienced by Isaac Newton, the greatest mathematical genius, and by Einstein. Newton had a depression af­ter his efforts on gravity.

Einstein had no such difficulty: he would break off and go sailing or play violin — not very well, he said, but it was very comforting.


The lesson here is clear. To avoid exam stress, you have to tell that what you are doing is fun (забава) and the best way to do this is to treat revision as a game. If you stimulate your brain with short, snappy (энергичный) sessions, you will be surprised how quick and sharp you are. A laugh with friends or a walk through the coun­try is really giving your mind the recreation it needs.


Упражнение 1. А. Прочитайте следующие слова и словосочетания из тек­ста 7А и постарайтесь понять значения выделенных слов.

  1. for long journeys in cars

  2. arriving at the motorway

  3. the fuel left in the tank

  4. the radar aerial

  5. the radar only observes objects ahead of

  6. stationary objects

  7. the red light and buzzer warn

  8. satellite will indicate the route

В. Подберите к выделенному в А слову или словосочетанию соответст­вующее ему по значению.

a. container for liquid or gas

b. electrical device that produces a sound signal

с way taken or planned from one place to another

d. see, watch carefully objects in front of

e. not moving or changing

f. reach a wide road for continuously moving fast vehicles

g. travel to a distant place
h. antenna

Упражнение 2. А. Прочитайте текст и найдите слова и словосочетания, означающие:

a new idea or product, reduce, basis, joining, position, for each car, whole (com­plete), very great, large number (quantity), at a very high level (suddenly), put together or fit the parts of, take (send to), every year, the same, a person who takes part in a race for the first place.

Mass Production

Car manufacturer Henry Ford laid the foundation for the revo­lutionary change in the entire motor vehicle industry.


The key for mass production was not the moving assembly line. It was the complete interchangeability of parts and the simplicity of attaching them to each other. These were the innovations that made the assembly line possible. Taken together, they gave Ford tremendous advantage over his competitors.

Ford's first efforts to assemble his cars, beginning in 1903, were to set up assembly stands on which a whole car was built. Each as­sembler performed many jobs on one car and had to get the neces­sary parts for it.

The first step Ford took to make this process more efficient was to deliver the parts to each work station. Now each assembler remained in the same place all day. Later in 1908 Ford decided that each assembler would perform only one task and move around the factory from car to car. In 1913 cars were placed on a moving as­sembly line. Each assembler performed one task only and remained stationary. This innovation cut cycle time from 2.3 minutes to 1.19 minutes, thus dramatically improving productivity.

Ford's discovery simultaneously reduced the amount of human effort needed to assemble an automobile. What is more, the more vehicles Ford produced, the more the cost per vehicle fell. In the early 1920s Ford produced 2 million identical vehicles a year.

Ford's mass production was adopted in almost every industrial activity in America and Europe.

В. Заполните пропуски, образуя составные слова, общеизвестные слово­сочетания или термины:

... time the cost ...

vehicle ... ... production

assembly ... ... manufacturer

... effort ... industry

Упражнение 3. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения выде­ленных слов.

There was a bad accident on one of the main motorways to Paris this afternoon. A big tourist coach broke down on the inside lane of the motorway, and the driver could not move it. It was about 5.30 in the afternoon, the middle of the rush hour, so it soon created a terrible traffic jam. A driver in a BMW doing about 60 mph tried to go round the coach. Unfortunately, another car was coming in the opposite direction. The driver braked hard and tried to stop, but he could not avoid the accident. The BMW


crashed into the front of his car. The driver of the BMW died, the other driver was badly injured, and both cars were badly damaged.

Упражнение 4. Выберите из двух выделенных слов или словосочетаний правильное.

  1. While turning a corner at high speed my car hit/crashed a lamp post.

  2. The only means of arrival/access to the station is through a dark subway.

  3. We managed to complete our journey ahead of/in front of schedule.

  4. The police accused the driver of breaking the speed limit/re­striction.

  5. Sixty extra policemen were to direct/control the traffic out­side the stadium.

  6. When her car broke down, she had to catch/take a taxi.

  7. There are road works in center streets and long delays/inter­vals are expected.

  8. This car is an automatic, so you do not have to adjust/change gear all the time.

  1. Only a mechanic could realize/understand the true amount/extent of the damage to the car.

  2. Travellers who wish to visit the old city should travel in the two front buses/coaches.

  3. The driver told his passengers to fasten/fix their safety belts.

  4. You mustn't ride/drive a motorbike without a helmet.

  5. The two buses collided (столкнуться), but luckily none was injured/wounded.

Упражнение 5. А. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять значения слов tube, poor и run.

Many of the world's major cities were built long before the car appeared and people realized the need to built efficient road sys­tems. Current traffic management problems may be connected with old city planning.

The thing that saves some of these cities is an effective public transport system, usually below ground. London has an old but ef­fective underground train system known as a tube, and a compre­hensive bus and train system above the ground. Hong Kong has cheap, swift and effective public transport in the form of Mass Transit Railway, buses and ferries.


But there are newly built cities, such as, for example, Dallas, Baltimore and Los Angeles in America. Dallas is a wealthy city in Texas, which has grown up in an era when cars were considered to be essential to move about. It has an excellent road system, as does Baltimore, another new city with wise city leaders who insisted on building good roads. However, the public transport system in both Baltimore and Dallas is extremely poor. As a result, travel in these cities is easy except for peak hour, when a twenty minute run can take more than an hour in traffic jams. Los Angeles suffers from chronic highway blockages, despite efforts to encourage people to use public transport.

Cities with good road systems can use other methods to reduce the number of vehicles travelling together at peak hour. Flexible time is one good method: offices open and close at different times so people are travelling to and from work at different times. Vehi­cles carrying more than one person can use special priority lanes, which means they can travel more quickly. There are even systems to make peak hours car use more expensive, with electronic chips recording the presence of a vehicle in a given high traffic area at a given time.

^ B. Выберите соответствующие тексту А значения слов ferries, poor.

spacecrafts, airplanes, boats, space vehicles; needing help, small in quantity, low in quality.

C. Найдите в тексте А слова, означающие:

  1. demand 5. easily changed for new needs or conditions

  2. rich 6. full, including many kinds of

  3. journey in a car 7. having experience, knowledge

  4. fast 8. main public road

D. Вставьте антонимы выделенных слов.

  1. Public transport in Hong Kong is cheap, but in London it is...

  2. Paris has the Metro railway below ground and a large bus system ...

  3. People should ... and finish work at different time to reduce peak hour traffic jams.

  4. City administration try to encourage people to use ... trans­port, not private cars in the city center.

  5. An electronic device can record the absence or ... of any per­son at the office.


6. The public transport available in Baltimore is very poor, while in Sidney it is ...

E. Найдите в тексте А независимый причастный оборот. Переведите.

Упражнение 6. Заполните пропуски следующими словами:

reduce transportation advantage car per traffic public transport source study average routes increase symbol atmosphere number motor vehicle reduction solve

The private (1) ... has dramatically improved the comfort, speed and individual freedom of movement. The automobile has become a status (2) ... The car brought people much closer to places of work, (3) ... and entertainment.

However, the use of private cars can also be a (4) ... of many most serious problems today. The car is a disadvantage as well as an (5) ... It pollutes the (6) ..., may be involved in dangerous acci­dents, and by its very numbers blocks roads and chokes (душить) cities. In New York City, 2.5 million cars move in and out of the city each day. In this (7) ..., the average speed is sometimes 8.1 miles (8) ... hour. This speed could easily be reached by riding a horse instead of driving a (9)... But New Yorkers continue to drive, just as people in London where the (10)... speed in certain particu­larly overcrowded (11) ... is only 2 miles per hour. Most people be­lieve that the car is a necessary part of life in today's world. Car owners usually do not consider other methods of public (12) ... such as bus, train or bicycle.

The only way to (13) ... these problems is to reduce the use of private cars. How can we do it? We may (14) ... access to parking spaces in the cities and simultaneously (15)... the quality and avail­ability of public transport. Cars could not be permitted in certain parts of the city, thus making people walk and use (16) ... The cost of buying and running a car can be increased with a corresponding (17) ... in the price of public transport. The reduced (18) ... of cars on the roads means less pollution.

Упражнение 7. Назовите прилагательные с окончанием -able/-ible, озна­чающие:

that can be moved that can be used or obtained

that can be reached that can provide comfort

that can be managed that may be permitted

that can be solved that can be changed for new needs


Упражнение 8. Заполните таблицу на словообразование.






• • •

• • •



• • •






• • •




• • •

• • •



• • •

• • •

• • •


• • •

• • •

• • •






Упражнение 9. А. Назовите 15—20 ключевых слов и словосочетаний на тему «Road transport».

В. Speak about:

  1. The current public transport problems in your city or town, its safety, speed and comfort.

  2. The role and importance of a private car in your own life.

  3. The changes in technology (manual assembly — mass assem­bly lines — robotics — computerized production).

  4. Offer your own ideas on traffic management improvement in your area.



Герундий Значения as и by Суффикс -ize (-ise) Префикс over-Text 8A. A New Era for Aircraft Text 8B. The Return of the Dirigibles Text 8C. Off the Ground: How do We Find Where We are Going?

Text 8D. New York


Упражнение 1. Найдите в предложениях герундий по его признакам, пе­реведите.

1. On detecting danger on the road the computer signals the driver. 2. Detecting an object in front of a car in the dark is the pur­pose of the «night vision system». 3. One of the main problems of a driver on the road is keeping the speed constant and watching the cars ahead. 4. A new device for monitoring and adjusting air pres­sure in tires has recently been developed. 5. Before starting a car one must examine it carefully. 6. Computers are widely used for controlling all kinds of processes. 7. Alexander Bell's being a teacher of deaf people influenced his interest in sound and its transmission. 8. Samuel Morse's hobby was experimenting with electricity. 9. Driving a truck in the city is difficult.

Упражнение 2. Определите формы и функции герундия.

1. One of the best ways of keeping the speed steady is using a computer for this purpose. 2. Newton's having made a mistake in his calculations has no influence on his theory. 3. On being turned


on the radar will warn the driver of stationary or slow-moving ob­jects on the road. 4. Upon being heated the molecules begin mov­ing very rapidly. 5. The white line in the centre of the road is one of the most effective means of controlling traffic. 6. On graduating from the University S.P. Korolev began working in the field of rocket design. 7. The function of a car computer is detecting and summing up the information about the road conditions. 8. Moni­toring and adjusting air pressure in tires is one of the new develop­ments of the car designers. 9. It is difficult to solve some of the present-day scientific and technological problems without using supercomputers. 10. On seeing a red light on a panel and on hear­ing a warning sound the driver should decrease the speed. 11. By picking up infrared rays emitted by objects ahead of the car an im­age-processing system produces different images of objects. 12. On studying for half an hour before an exam one should switch over to some other activity.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения и запомните значения выделен­ных слов.

A. 1. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared, measures
were taken to limit their speed in many countries. 2. His having
measured the distance will enable him to calculate the intensity of
light. 3. The universal system of

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